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ANDROLOGY : The Science of Dysfunctions of the Male Reproductive System

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Ejaculatory disturbance
Though ejaculation often occurs normally and is an intensely pleasurable sensation for most men, it is an extremely complex phenomenon that is regulated by many different systems. Hence, things often can, and do go wrong.


Risk Factors
Impotence often comes without warning and can strike even the most virile stud like a bolt of lightning.

How much of a risk do you face ?

Sex is man's second strongest instinct.www.addwatch.org An instinct that is second only to the survival instinct. This means that if a man's life is not immediately imperilled, the next thing he will automatically think of is sex.


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We've all heard of the barren wife. But what of barren husbands ? Can male infertility be cured ? The wife visits her gynecologist...so who is the husband supposed to consult ?



AndrologyIn more than 90% of cases, male reproductive disorders have an organic (bodily) cause which can be diagnosed and treated successfully.



oday, it is perfectly natural for a lady with a complaint referable to her reproductive system to seek the services of a gynecologist. The lady visits her gynecologist with little or no embarrassment and is quite often accompanied by her husband, parents or other friends/relatives.

Female reproductive anatomy and physiology have been well researched over the centuries and great strides have been made in the treatment of female reproductive disorders.

This is the era of super-specialisation. Today, for example, even among gynaecologists there is diversification into areas like gynaecological oncology (cancers), female infertility, gynaecological endocrinology etc..

Specialty centers have sprung up everywhere which do not have either the inclination or the time to dabble in routine day-to-day gynaecological disorders.

It is ironic that despite such rapid advancement in other branches of medicine, the male reproductive system has remained woefully neglected.

The male afflicted with a genital problem still does not know whom to consult (whereas most women have their own personal gynecologists). For want of a separate discipline, urologists, skin & VD specialists, endocrinologists,rolex replica watches `sex specialists', psychiatrists and quacks have been treating these problems - frequently unsuccessfully and quite often, disastrously. Fortunately, it need not be so any more.


Tremendous progress in basic and clinical research over the past few years has led to a great improvement in our understanding of male reproductive function. Andrology, the branch of medicine that deals exclusively with disorders of the male reproductive system, is the outcome of this research.

Thus, andrology is to the male what gynecology is to the female.


Among the deterrents to progress in this field are myth and superstition, male chauvinism and psychology. The prevalent belief, world-wide, that sex is something sinful and shameful is one of the main factors responsible for the delayed birth of andrology.

Unfortunately, in many cultures, such misconceptions continue to flourish even today.

 Some Common Andrological Disorders

Impotence (erectile dysfunction)

Infertility (childlessness)

Intersex disorders and transsexuality

Ejaculatory disturbances

Peyronie's disease

Penile curvature


Sperm conducting system defects (epididymis, vas, ejaculatory duct)

Andrologic cancers (penis, testes, scrotum)




Swellings of scrotum and intra-scrotal contents

Venereal disease in males

Groin swelling (including hernias)

Delayed puberty in boys

Penile torsion

This was further compounded by male chauvinism. In a male-dominated society, our menfolk could not accept the fact that something could actually be wrong with their `symbols of manhood' - the male reproductive organs. Research was therefore, laggardly. It is ironic that it is these very men who discovered gynecology and saw it progress so rapidly.

The Freudian era made progress even more difficult. Sigmund Freud taught (to put it very simply), that everything was linked to human sexuality. This led people to erroneously conclude that reproductive disorders in men were largely psychological in origin.

The birth of every new branch in medicine begins with biology i.e. a study of the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of the part. When either of these is deranged, pathology (disease) ensues. Unfortunately for andrology,Rolex Milgauss Replica the study of male sexuality began with psychology rather than biology. This has caused a gross misunderstanding of the subject.

Not only that, the seeds of misconception sown so many decades ago are still firmly entrenched in people's minds, and most people - including several doctors - even today continue to think that impotence is largely a psychological disorder.

This explains why most people know that it takes a complex series of neuromuscular phenomena to lift a little finger but fail to realise that equally complex phenomena are required to lift the penis. Most imagine that all that is needed for the latter event to occur is a naughty thought.


In more than 90% of cases, male reproductive disorders have an organic (bodily) cause which can be diagnosed and treated successfully - sometimes with medication, at other times with external devices or with surgery.

Sex therapy, in contradistinction to andrology, treats only the remaining minority with purely psychological problems. The earlier tendency to label most male reproductive problems psychological was the outcome of ignorance within the medical profession itself.

It may be pertinent to mention here at this juncture that at the famed Masters and Johnson Institute for psycho-sexual therapy, no patient is taken up for treatment today until he has gone through the entire gamut of andrological tests to eliminate organic disease first. The same Masters and Johnson had publicly proclaimed in the seventies that more than 90% of impotence is psychological. But all that is rewritten history now.


With the gradual erosion of male chauvinism and the emergence of the self-assertive, economically-independent modern woman, it was becoming more and more difficult for fraudulent quacks and sex specialists to provide tangible results using hazy `techniques' and men themselves were forced to seek more scientific methods to cure their condition. Today's woman will insist that the husband be investigated for their childlessness. She also justifiably demands sexual gratification and will not be a silent suffering spectator to her partner's sexual inadequacies.


In the earlier days, the cure for male reproductive problems began and ended with the quacks. A stealthy visit to a 'doctor', often in a remote city, was followed by the inevitable - exorbitant fees and dubious medicines but no cures.

Today, millions of men the world over walk into andrological clinics without embarrassment and often walk out completely cured.


Most andrological disorders are seldom discussed socially for reasons of shyness, guilt or embarrassment. The true magnitude of these problems is therefore not known to many. Here are some eye-opening statistics.

In 50% of childless couples it is a male factor (the husband) that is responsible for the infertility. Upto 15% of all couples are childless i.e. 7.5% of all cohabiting men are infertile. In a country of 980 million people that should leave little to the imagination!

Impotence, which is different from infertility and suggests an inability to perform sexually because of poor erections rather than an inability to father children, is likewise very common.

It affects a staggering percentage of the sexually active adult male population. Contrary to popular belief, impotence is more often partial than complete and does not affect the elderly alone. Young and old alike are affected - sometimes from birth.

Clinical States associated with Impotence


Impotent since birth


Impotence sets in after years of normal sex


Causes of Secondary Impotence

  1. Diabetes mellitus
  2. Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  3. Atherosclerosis
  4. Renal (kidney) failure
  5. Heart disease
  6. Neurological disorders - multiple sclerosis, stroke, paraplegia, spinal cord lesions, Parkinsonism, etc.
  7. Injuries - sudden - e.g. pelvic and perineal
  8. Injuries - gradual - as in bicycle-riders etc.
  9. Surgery-operations on bowel, rectum, bladder, retroperitoneum, spine, urethra, prostate etc.
  10. Local e.g. Peyronie's disease
  11. Medication e.g. drugs administered for duodenal ulcer, hypertension, mental disease etc.

It especially affects diabetics (more than 50% of whom are impotent), hypertensives, smokers, alcoholics, patients with liver, kidney and heart disease, men who are on medication for unrelated disorders such as hypertension, peptic ulcer or depression (more than 250 drugs are known to cause impotence) etc..

Injuries to the pelvis and genital regions and many operations in that area performed for other unrelated disorders can also cause impotence by damaging the delicate arteries, veins and nerves to the penis.

Most of these are completely curable with modern andrological methods.


Modern andrology has revolutionised the treatment of male reproductive disorders.

An entirely new set of investigative modalities has made diagnosis not only much simpler but more accurate and comprehensive.

Inflatable Penile ProsthesisInflatable penile prostheses restore excellent erections surgically, and offer new hope for the impotent. (The model shown here is made by Mentor Urology, California, U.S.A.)

Today, for instance, it is possible for us to measure with great accuracy the exact amount of blood entering the penis. A block in the artery to the penis (similar to a coronary artery block) can be localised.

Sperms can be counted and studied on a computer screen.

Microsurgery can use magnifications of upto 40 times to visualise structures invisible to the naked eye and to operate on them with great precision.

Microsurgery being performed by Dr.Sudhakar Krishnamurti, the Chief Medical Consultant for this site.Microsurgery

The reproductive laboratory has opened up new avenues in semen-handling. IVF and ICSI have become everyday procedures.

Bypass operations are being performed under the microscope for impotence and infertility.

Vacuum devices cure impotence with 90% efficacy. Prosthetic implants are being inserted surgically to cure impotence. And a lot more awaits us in the future.

Also check out
What every Adult needs to know about Impotence.
Ejaculatory Disturbances.
The Male Factor in Infertility.
Andropause (Male Menopause) - Does it really exist ?
Curves, Bends, and Peyronie's Disease.
Penis Lengthening and Girth Enhancement
Why some Women want to become Men (and vice versa).
Are You at Risk of turning Impotent ?
Male Impotence - A Woman's Perspective.
Non-surgical Solutions for Impotence.

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